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ICE EFFECTS ON STREAMFLOW
The formation of ice on rivers can cause discharge values to appear unusually high. Display of these erroneous discharge data may result in improper assessment of flow conditions and misuse of the data. For this reason, display of discharge values for streams significantly affected by ice may be disabled from view. Display of discharge data will resume when ice conditions are no longer present. Discharge values for streams minimally affected by ice will continue to be displayed. Flows for streams with these conditions appear to increase during the night and decrease to near-base-line conditions around midday. To estimate the correct discharge for these streams, use the flow rate that corresponds to the bottom of the discharge curve, rather than the peak that corresponds to the top of the curve. Note that this method of estimation is possible only when no surface runoff is occurring. Daily mean discharges for periods of both significant and minimal ice-effect will be estimated and published in the Annual Water-Data Report for the water year in which they occurred.
LOCATION--Lat 42° 09'38", long 72° 30'52",
Hampden County, Hydrologic Unit 01080204, on left bank 1,000 ft
downstream from West Street Bridge at Indian Orchard, 1.1 mi upstream
from Fuller Brook, and 7.2 mi upstream from mouth.
DRAINAGE AREA--689 mi2.
PERIOD OF RECORD--Discharge: August 1928 to current year. Published as "at Bircham Bend" prior to November 1938.
Water-quality records: Water years 1953, 1957, 1994.
REVISED RECORDS--WSP 1231: 1934. WDR MA-RI-84-1: drainage area.
GAGE--Data Collection Platform with satellite telemeter. Elevation of gage is 125 ft above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929, from topographic map. Prior to Nov. 1, 1938, water-stage recorder at site 1.8 mi downstream at different datum.
REMARKS--Diversion since 1941 from 186 mi2 in Swift River basin and at times since 1931 from 97 mi2 in Ware River basin for Boston metropolitan district; since 1950, for Chicopee; since 1952, for South Hadley; at times since 1966 for Worcester; at times since 1955 from 6.5 mi2 in Ware River basin for Fitchburg. Diversion from Ludlow Reservoir for Springfield and, prior to 1952, for Chicopee. Flow regulated by powerplants upstream, by Quabbin Reservoir 21 mi upstream on Swift River since 1939, by Barre Falls Reservoir on Ware River since 1958, by Conant Brook Reservoir since 1966, and by smaller reservoirs.
COOPERATION BY--Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Office of Water Resources.
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