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Water-Year Summary for Site 435723092171801

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Available Parameters
00010 Temperature, water(Mean)  
00045 Precipitation(Max.,Sum) [not accurate when freezing]  
62611 Elevation, GW, NAVD88(Mean)  
72019 Water level, depth LSD(Mean)  

Water year 2023: 2022-10-01 to 2023-09-30
 

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USGS Water-Year Summary 2023
435723092171801 WLN10 106N12W29ACCC 01 Marion CRN 0000817784
Upper carbonate aquifer
Galena Formation
LOCATION - Lat 43°57'22.64", long 92°17'18.10" referenced to North American Datum of 1983, in SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec.29, T.106 N., R.12 W., Olmsted County, MN, Hydrologic Unit 07040004, 3.1 miles NE of Marion, Minnesota, 3.7 miles SW of Eyota, Minnesota.
REVISIONS HISTORY -

Water temperature: On 04 Dec. 2023, a +0.3°C shift was applied to all previously approved water temperature (21.9 ft. BLS) data during 20 Sept. 2018 at 21:00 CDT to 11 Apr. 2023 at 07:30 CDT. This shift was applied because for two reasons. First, there was a 1-pt calibration check on 23 Nov. 2022, which showed evidence the water temperature data collected during this period were inaccurately low by 0.3°C. Secondly, it was discovered after the transducer thermistor replacement on 08 Jun. 2023 that the previously approved water temperature data should be adjusted by +0.3°C to match the current transducer thermistor, which recently had a 3-pt calibration check. 

Water temperature: On 12 April 2023, it was discovered that previously published (approved) water temperature (21.9 ft. BLS) were inaccurately corrected during 20 September 2018 to 20 October 2022. These previously published data were adjusted by -1.0°C during this period. 

GROUNDWATER RECORDS
WELL CHARACTERISTICS - Depth 99.15 ft. Upper casing diameter 4 in; top of first opening 18 ft, bottom of last opening 80 ft.

The hole for well WLN10 was drilled with an 12-inch-diameter and 8-inch diameter, rotary drill rig to a depth of 80 feet. The well is constructed of 18 feet of 4-inch-diameter, schedule-40 steel well casing. The casing measuring point (stickup) was 1.85 feet above land surface when measured on 21 Sept. 2016. The open interval (open hole) of the well is between 18 and 80 feet below land surface and the well is 80 feet deep.

NOTE: A total well depth of 99.15 ft. BLS was measured on 20 Sept. 2018 after pumping the well. The values above were recorded from the driller's log, which may be inaccurate according to this total well depth measurement.

DATUM - Land-surface datum is 1,254.5 ft above North American Vertical Datum of 1988. Measuring point: Black mark on top of 8-inch diameter steel well casing, not protection post, 1.85 ft above land-surface datum, Sep. 21, 2016 to present. The measuring point is a black mark on the top of the 4-inch diameter steel well casing, which was 1.85 feet above land surface on 25 Sept. 2016. Elevation of the measuring point is 1256.35 ±0.1 feet above sea level, North American Vertical Datum of 1988, based on a GPS survey completed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MN-DNR) on an unknown date.
PERIOD OF RECORD -

Water levels were recorded periodically from 25 October 2016 to the present. Water levels were recorded hourly from 25 October 2016 at 14:00 CDT to 17 February 2017 at 08:00 CST. Water levels were recorded quarter-hourly from 17 February 2017 at 09:15 CST to 20 September 2018 at 17:45 CDT. Water levels were recorded hourly from 20 September 18:00 CDT to 31 October 2018 at 15:00 CDT. Water levels were recorded quarter-hourly from 31 October 2018 at 16:00 CDT to 26 December 2019 at 11:00 CST. Water levels were recorded hourly from 26 December 2019 at 12:00 CST to 10 January 2020 at 16:00 CST. Water levels were recorded quarter-hourly from 10 January 2020 at 16:30 CST to the present, except during the following periods with gaps longer than 4 hours:

20 Dec. 2016 at 08:00 CST - 26 Dec. 2016 at 00:00 CST: due to transducer hanging in air; WL dropped below bottom of transducer.
10 Jan. 2017 at 19:00 CST - 20 Jan. 2017 at 07:00 CST: due to transducer hanging in air; WL dropped below bottom of transducer.
23 Aug. 2017 at 08:15 CDT - 07 Oct. 2017 at 2:45 CDT: due to transducer hanging in air; WL dropped below bottom of transducer.
10 Nov. 2017 at 09:30 CST - 17 Jan. 2018 at 12:45 CST: due to transducer hanging in air; WL dropped below bottom of transducer.
17 Jul. 2018 at 13:45 CDT - 18 Jul. 2018 at 01:00 CDT: due to unknown pressure transducer recording issue.
30 Aug. 2018 at 15:00 CDT - 31 Aug. 2018 at 01:45 CDT: due to unknown pressure transducer recording issue.
10 Apr. 2019 at 22:45 CDT - 11 Apr. 2019 at 09:15 CDT: due to datalogger over-writing data and not downloading soon-enough. 
25 Oct. 2019 at 08:45-14:45 CDT: due to removing transducer from well during attempted WQ sampling. 
Intermittent gaps: 01 Jun. 2023 at 05:15 CDT - 06 Jun. 16:00 CDT: due to periodic transducer failures. 
27 Sept. 2023 at 14:30 CDT - 28 Sept. 2023 at 04:45 CDT: due to removing transducer and pumping well during WQ sampling. 

GAGE - Water level and water temperature are currently measured with a WaterLOG H-3123 submersible pressure transducer nominally accurate to 0.01 feet and 0.1°C, respectively. A Texas Electronic, Inc. TR-525I, unheated, tipping-bucket rain gage measures precipitation and is nominally accurate to 0.01 inches. Water level, water temperature, precipitation, shelter temperature, and battery voltage are all recorded by a Campbell Scientific, Inc. CR295X data logger, which records all data quarter-hourly. The data logger is housed in a 12-inch X 14-inch grey fiberglass shelter attached to the antenna mast. The gage is powered by a 20W solar panel and 12v, 18Ah station battery and is telemetered by GOES satellite telemetry with a Campbell Scientific, Inc. TX321-G GOES V2 HDR data transmitter. 

On 31 Oct. 2018 at 16:15 CDT, the CR295X datalogger program was updated to begin recording all water level, water temperature, precipitation, shelter temperature, and battery voltage every 15-minutes (no longer hourly) going forward. This was done per request of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

Continuous water levels were measured during 25 Oct. 2016 at 14:00 CDT to 17 Jan. 2018 at 12:45 CST with an OTT Orpheus Mini, 0-10 meter range, submersible pressure transducer by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.  This transducer was replaced by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources on 17 Jan. 2018 with a pressure transducer which hung deeper in the well and would no longer go dry when water levels dropped during Winter and Summer months. Continuous water levels were measured during 17 Jan. 2018 at 13:00 CST to 20 Sept. 2018 at 17:45 CDT with an OTT Orpheus Mini, 0-10 meter range, submersible pressure transducer. These data were recorded hourly by the same OTT Orpheus Mini pressure transducer, which has a datalogger built into it. The datalogger was housed inside of the 4-inch steel well casing, which has an aluminum locking well cap on top the 8-inch black steel protection post. The gage was powered by 3 AA alkaline batteries that are inside of the datalogger communications rod. Data were downloaded manually and no telemetry or phone line is wired into the gage. This OTT Orpheus Mini pressure transducer was installed and maintained by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. MN-DNR currently has this pressure transducer still installed and recording data in the well, but may remove it something in the future since the well is now by monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey.
COOPERATION - Well WLN10 is operated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Climate-Response Network (CRN) Program.

This site is also monitored as part of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources' Cooperative Groundwater Monitoring (CGM) Program during 25 Oct. 2016 to the present. DNR obwell number: 55010.
REMARKS - The water-level rise on 25 Oct. 2019 during 7:30–13:30 was likely not due to recharge because no precipitation fell near that time.  During that time, the MN DNR pumped several wells at this nest to re-develop them for sampling.  This rise is likely caused by the pumped water discharged to the land surface recharging the surficial aquifer.
EXTREMES FOR PERIOD OF RECORD -

Highest instantaneous water level: 0.45 ft. below land-surface datum on 19 July 2019.
Lowest instantaneous water level: 15.74 ft below land-surface datum on 13 December 2022.

Highest manual (discrete) water level: 2.65 ft. below land-surface datum on 11 April 2023.
Lowest manual (discrete) water level: 15.11 ft below land-surface datum on 22 February 2018.

CLIMATOLOGICAL RECORDS
PERIOD OF RECORD -

Precipitation were recorded quarter-hourly from 20 September 2018 at 18:00 CDT to the present, except during the following periods with gaps longer than 60 minutes:

10 Apr. 2019 at 22:45 CDT - 11 Apr. 2019 at 09:15 CDT: due to datalogger over-writing data and not downloading soon enough. 
12 Apr. 2019 at 12:30-13:15 CDT: due to datalogger over-writing data and not downloading soon-enough.
22 Apr. 2019 at 21:30-22:15 CDT: due to datalogger over-writing data and not downloading soon-enough.
27 Apr. 2019 at 10:30-11:15 CDT: due to datalogger over-writing data and not downloading soon-enough.
21 Apr. 2023 at 17:00 CDT - 25 May 2023 at 13:15 CDT: due to missing funnel on the top of rain gage during this period.

INSTRUMENTATION - Precipitation is measured with a Texas Electronics, TR-525I tipping-bucket rain gage, which is accurate to 0.01 inches. The rain gage is unheated and uncovered during the winter. Thus precipitation data during freezing periods (about December through early April) result from melting of snow during warm periods and do NOT represent actual precipitation.
WATER-QUALITY RECORDS
WELL CHARACTERISTICS - Depth 99.15 ft. Upper casing diameter 4 in; top of first opening 18 ft, bottom of last opening 80 ft.

The hole for well WLN10 was drilled with an 12-inch-diameter and 8-inch diameter, rotary drill rig to a depth of 80 feet. The well is constructed of 18 feet of 4-inch-diameter, schedule-40 steel well casing. The casing measuring point (stickup) was 1.85 feet above land surface when measured on 21 Sept. 2016. The open interval (open hole) of the well is between 18 and 80 feet below land surface and the well is 80 feet deep.

NOTE: A total well depth of 99.15 ft. BLS was measured on 20 Sept. 2018 after pumping the well. The values above were recorded from the driller's log, which may be inaccurate according to this total well depth measurement.

DATUM - Land-surface datum is 1,254.5 ft above North American Vertical Datum of 1988. Measuring point: Black mark on top of 8-inch diameter steel well casing, not protection post, 1.85 ft above land-surface datum, Sep. 21, 2016 to present. The measuring point is a black mark on the top of the 4-inch diameter steel well casing, which was 1.85 feet above land surface on 25 Sept. 2016. Elevation of the measuring point is 1256.35 ±0.1 feet above sea level, North American Vertical Datum of 1988, based on a GPS survey completed by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MN-DNR) on an unknown date.
PERIOD OF RECORD -

Water temperatures were recorded hourly from 20 September 18:00 CDT to 31 October 2018 at 15:00 CDT. Water temperatures were recorded quarter-hourly from 31 October 2018 at 16:00 CDT to 26 December 2019 at 11:00 CST. Water temperatures were recorded hourly from 26 December 2019 at 12:00 CST to 10 January 2020 at 16:00 CST. Water temperatures were recorded quarter-hourly from 10 January 2020 at 16:30 CST to the present, except during the following periods with gaps longer than 4 hours:

10 Apr. 2019 at 22:45 CDT - 11 Apr. 2019 at 09:15 CDT: due to datalogger over-writing data and not downloading soon-enough. 
25 Oct. 2019 at 09:00-22:30 CDT: due to removing transducer from well during attempted WQ sampling. 
29 Oct. 2019 at 11:15-15:15 CDT: due to removing transducer from well during WQ sampling. 

COOPERATION - Well WLN10 is operated as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Climate-Response Network (CRN) Program.

This site is also monitored as part of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources' Cooperative Groundwater Monitoring (CGM) Program during 25 Oct. 2016 to the present. DNR obwell number: 55010.
INSTRUMENTATION - Water temperatures are currently measured with a WaterLOG H-3123 submersible pressure transducer during 20 Sept. 2018 at 18:00 CDT to the present, which are accurate to ±0.1°C. Differences in temperature are also accurate to 0.1°C.